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Showing posts with label English Articles. Show all posts
Showing posts with label English Articles. Show all posts

Saturday, June 10, 2017

How to figure out how much sleep you really need

In theory, sleep takes up about 8 out of every 24 hours, one-third of our lives. But many of us don't actually sleep that much and are tired all the time — more than a third of Americans don't get the seven to nine hours of sleep a night that the CDC recommends.

Yet we spend additional time worrying about our sleep. According to a research by the National Sleep Foundation, more than a third of Americans say their sleep quality is "poor" or "only fair."

But how much sleep do we really need?

First, let's get the bad news out of the way: there isn't going to be a one size fits all answer — sleep needs really do vary from person to person.

You could be one of those incredibly rare people that can actually get by on a few hours of sleep a night (almost definitely not), or you could be on the opposite end of the spectrum, what doctors refer to as a "long sleeper," who might need 11 hours a night.

But there are some things we do know about sleep, and these can help you figure out how much sleep you actually need — and how to better get a night's rest.

Here are five facts that will help you figure out what your personal sleep patterns are and how they compare to the rest of the population.

1. There's a reason that doctors usually recommend seven to nine hours of sleep.

The amount of sleep that people need falls into a bell curve type distribution, with the vast majority of the population needing between seven and nine hours of rest each night to be refreshed.

The chart to the right, from the book "Internal Time: Chronotypes, Social Jet Lag, and Why You're So Tired" by German chronobiologist Till Roenneberg, shows the general distribution of sleep needs. (Chronobiology is the science of our internal clocks.)

2. You have a natural chronotype, or body clock, that determines when you are most comfortable sleeping and being awake.

Most of us think of ourselves as morning or night people, but those divisions aren't scientific — they're just ways of comparing ourselves to one another. 

"Where you define owl or lark is really arbitrary," says Dr. David Welsh, an associate professor studying circadian clocks at UC San Diego. Welsh says that if you look at large surveys of populations, you get a normal distribution of chronotypes — most people have fairly "average" chronotypes, some prefer to get up a bit earlier or later, and small groups naturally rise extremely early or late. There's no line that distinguishes different chronotypes.

But we all do have an internal schedule that makes us feel awake or sleepier at different times of day. Because of factors including hormone levels, genetics, and light exposure, some of us are more alert in the mornings and some of us prefer times later in the day.

If your schedule isn't aligned with your chronotype, you will feel tired and out of sync.

3. The amount of sleep you need changes throughout your life.

The seven to nine hour recommendation is standard for adults, but kids need much more sleep, while some older people need less.

This chart by the National Sleep Foundation shows how these requirements change as kids grow up. In addition to length of sleep needs changing, chronotypes change throughout life as well.

According to Roenneberg's book, young children naturally tend to be more morning oriented. Around puberty, they're more likely to shift into a night owl chronotype, which tends to shift back to an earlier chronotype after age 20.

4. There are some things you can do to adjust your natural chronotype.

While your sleep needs (both chronotype, when you are alert, and length, how much sleep you need) are mostly genetic, there are certain things you can do to adjust your schedule and at least make it a bit easier to get up earlier.

Our bodies respond to light, especially the powerful natural light of the sun. Being exposed to that light in the morning tells our body that it's time to be alert and moving. At night, sitting in the dark stimulates the production of the hormone melatonin, which helps us relax and fall asleep (we mess with this process by looking at bright light from smartphones).

But we can adjust this to a degree by controlling our exposure to light. This process, called entrainment, is what our bodies have to do when we go to a different time zone — this is why we get jet lagged. But we can also use this to train our bodies to get up and go to sleep earlier by exposing ourselves to natural light in the morning and avoiding bright light at night.

This won't turn you into a morning person, but it can make prying the covers loose just a little less painful.

5. Your sleep needs are personal; try to figure out what works for you.

Sometimes new research will come out, and people will claim something like "studies have found that seven hours is the optimal amount of sleep — not eight."

But as interesting as any sleep research is, we do know that people are different and have different needs. The findings of one study don't translate into recommendations for everyone. In the case of sleep, experts recommend figuring out what personally works best for you.

If you can let yourself sleep naturally for a few days to a week, going to bed when you are tired and waking up whenever is natural, preferably while limiting alcohol and caffeine, you'll have a better idea of your individual needs. Get some sun during the day, along with some exercise.

If you do all that but still have trouble sleeping, it might be time to talk to a doctor. You could be one of the large percentage of the population with undiagnosed sleep apnea, especially if you snore. Or you could have some other disorder that can be addressed.

It's worth taking the time to figure out what you can do to sleep better though. Not getting enough raises some serious health concerns.


Sources: MSN

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Published by Gusti Putra at: 10:06 AM
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This Variety Of Onion Contains Highest Amount Of Cancer-Fighting Compound

Eating Onions may Help Us Fighting Cancer

Next time you’re out for lunch, you may want to think twice before asking the waiter to “hold the onions” on your garden salad. New research from the University of Guelph in Canada has found that red onions have impressive cancer-fighting abilities. The study found that the Ontario onion in particular has high concentrations of quercetin, a compound previously noted for its ability to kill certain cancer cells.

The study, published online in Food Research International, found that the Ontario-grown Ruby Ring onion has the highest quercetin levels of all onions. In addition, the red onion has high amounts of anthocyanins, another compound that enhances the cancer-fighting properties of quercetin. 

"We found onions are excellent at killing cancer cells," said lead study author Abdulmonem Murayyan in a recent statement. "Onions activate pathways that encourage cancer cells to undergo cell death. They promote an unfavorable environment for cancer cells and they disrupt communication between cancer cells, which inhibits growth."

For their research, the team looked at five different Ontario-grown onions, measuring the amounts of quercetin in them. According to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, quercetin has been shown to neutralize free radical in the body that can cause cell and DNA damage, the catalyst to cancer. In addition, the site reports that quercetin has anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the release of substances that mediate the inflammatory response, such as histamine.
Fighting cancer by Eating Red Onions

The team placed colon cancer cells in direct contact with quercetin extracted from five different Ontario onion varieties in order to determine the compound's effect on cancerous cells. The compound had strong cancer-fighting abilities, and according to the team, the next step is to test the vegetable compound in human trials.

The team is also working to create a new extraction technique that would allow them to take quercetin from vegetables without using chemicals.

"Developing a chemical-free extraction method is important because it means we can use onion's cancer-fighting properties in nutraceuticals and in pill form,” explained study co-author Suresh Neethirajan in a statement.

The health benefits of onions don’t stop at fighting cancer. The vegetable is also helpful in preventing heart disease. For example, a 2007 study published in The Journal of Nutrition found that quercetin also significantly reduced high blood pressure and hypertension in adults. And because of quercetin's antihistamine and anti-inflammatory effect, researchers believe that it may be effective in managing asthma symptoms.

Other compounds in onions have also been shown to have health benefits. For example, allyl propyl disulphide, an oil found in onions of all kinds, can lower blood sugar levels by increasing the amount of free insulin available in the body. As a result, research suggests that adding more onions to your diet can help improve the health of individuals with diabetes.

Source: Murayyan AI, Manohar CM, Hayward G, Neethirajan S. Antiproliferative activity of Ontario grown onions against colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Food Research International. 2017
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 9:50 AM
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Saturday, June 03, 2017

Cow Born with a Human-like Head is Worshipped by Indian in Uttar Pradesh

Cow born with a human-like head is worshipped by Indian villagers who claim it resembles a GOD


A shocking video has emerged showing a cow born with human-like features in an animal shelter in India.  The calf was born with the eyes, nose and ears that resemble that of a human, while the lower part of its body had features of a cow
The calf was born with the eyes, nose and ears
However, the cow died within an hour of its birth yesterday, in Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, northern India.


Workers at an Indian animal shelter believe this deformed newborn calf is possibly a God.

Hundreds of locals came to venerate the dead calf who died in Uttar Pradesh, northern India. But as soon as the news spread, locals from nearby villages gathered to seek its blessing, believing it to be an avatar of Lord Vishnu, a Hindu God. The video shows people offering flower garlands and bowing before the dead calf, which has been kept inside a glass box since it died. Locals believe the calf is the 'Gokaran' - 24 incarnations of Lord Vishnu and plans are now afoot to build a temple for him.


Mahesh Kathuria, 50, a local businessman who came to see the calf, said: 'God has taken birth from the body of a local cow. We came here to seek his blessings. Religiously, it is an avatar of Vishnu. We believe it's a similar character mentioned in Bhagavata Puran, a Hindu religious text.' Raja Bhaiya Mishra, 55, the manager of the cow shelter, said: 'It's a miracle that the calf was born in this shelter. Thousands of people have been here to see it. We will be cremating him in three days and a temple will be built for him. This avatar has most definitely created a devotion feeling amongst the people.'

The animal's mother was taken to a cow shelter after being rescued from a butcher. For many Hindus cows must not be eaten although they can be used in agriculture or for dairy products

Locals are planning to build a temple for the calf once it is cremated in three days time. Hundreds of people from surrounding villages came to pray after coming to see the dead calf. He added that the mother was rescued from a butcher and was brought to the shelter six months ago before she fell pregnant. However, animal health experts have a different view on its birth and rubbishes any superstitions surrounding it. Dr Ajay Deshmukh, senior veterinary doctor, at Wildlife SOS, in India, said: 'This is a case of an anatomical anomaly. If a gene didn't develop properly or there was a fault, it causes multiple structural deformities, and such anomalies happen. It has got only scientific reasons and explanations, there's no superstitions here.' 

Sources: Daily Mail
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 5:58 AM
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Sunday, May 28, 2017

Keep Our Family from The 10 Most Dangerous Bugs in this Summer

The 10 Most Dangerous Bugs to Watch Out for This Summer

BLACK WIDOW SPIDER
Some bugs sting, bite, or even carry disease. Learn to recognize these dangerous insects to protect yourself and your family.
Roughly the size of a paper clip and with venom 15 times stronger than a rattlesnake’s, this hourglass-shaped black spider can be spotted by the red markings on its back. Black Widow spiders can live for 1-3 years in the wild and are often found alone.

TARANTULA SPIDER

With a lifespan of nearly 30 years Tarantula spiders can grow to nearly the size of a personal pizza. Most Tarantulas are afraid of large predators (like humans) but if provoked – watch out! Though their venom isn’t deadly, it’s not pleasant and can cause rashes and pain at the biting point.




AFRICANIZED BEE

Mostly found in the Southern and Southwestern portions of the United States, Africanized Honeybees often travel in swarms to find a new hive. Most do not randomly attacked people or animals unless they feel that their new hive is in danger. If you see a swarm of bees or are near a hive, it’s important to move away from the area quickly.



MOSQUITOES

Throughout the world, more people are killed by mosquito-borne illness than any other factor. In the United States, mosquitoes can spread different types of encephalitis and can transmit heartworms to domestic animals like dogs and cats.





RED FIRE ANTS

About ½ inch long and brought accidentally by ship from South America, the Red Fire Ant is a robust type of ant that can sting. Found on golf courses, at picnic grounds, and at playgrounds, Red Fire Ants are very common.






WASPS

Wasps usually have a slender, shiny body but they can often look like Honeybees. Unlike Honeybees, when wasps sting their victim they do not lose their stinger, allowing them to sting their victim repeatedly.

BROWN RECLUSE SPIDER

Native to the Midwestern and Southern United States, Brown Recluse Spiders can be deadly to children under the age of 7. Displaying a violin-like shape on their back, these spiders can range in color from brownish-tan to yellow-tan. Most Brown Recluse Spiders only bite when provoked.




SCORPIONS

With a crab-like appearance, scorpions are predatory and often come out at night. Scorpions like warm, dry climates and are often found in deserts. Take precautions when hiking and camping by keeping shoes, blankets, and towels secured indoors. Stings can feel much like a Honeybee sting with mild swelling or a rash, or may be more serious.



TICKS

Ticks can be very tiny and some can also carry Lyme disease. Prevalent throughout North America, ticks can attach themselves to exposed skin. After time spent outdoors, it’s important to do a full body check for ticks and to remove any ticks immediately. Removal of a Lyme disease-carrying Deer Tick within 36 hours can reduce your risk of getting the disease. 



CENTIPEDES AND MILLIPEDES

Though not poisonous, Millipedes carry venom that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. Centipedes also carry venom that is not deadly but can be toxic to people who are allergic to other types of insect venoms. Both centipedes and millipedes are worm-like creatures..



Sources : MSN
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 11:41 AM
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Sunday, May 14, 2017

8 Month-old Baby Weighing 17 KG (38 pounds) Baffles Doctors in India

A doctor checked Chahat Kumar
An 8-month-old baby in India who weighs as much as a healthy 4-year-old has left doctors stumped over what could be causing her rabid appetite. Chahat Kumar, who weighs 38 pounds, was born a healthy baby without any complications, The Sun reported.

When she was around 4 months old, Chahat’s weight began ballooning, and now her parents told Barcroft Media that she cries whenever she is not being fed.

“It’s not our fault,” Suraj, Chahat’s dad, told The Sun. “God gave this condition to her. It’s not in our hands. I feel bad when some people laugh at her for being fat.”

Doctors have been unable to obtain a blood sample from Chahat because her skin is abnormally thick, the news outlet reported. She reportedly is suffering breathing and sleeping problems due to her extreme weight.

Chahat Kumar is seen playing at her house in Punjab, India.
“We don’t have enough money for her treatment, but we do our best to make sure she gets well,” Reena, Chahat’s mother, told The Sun.

Dr. Sharma, her pediatrician, said he recommended the family take Chahat to a pediatric specialist at the Civil Hospital, but they are not able to afford it, The Sun reported.

“Her weight is increasing excessively, and it has to be controlled,” he told the news outlet. “She has to eat less. She eats like a 10-year-old kid.”

Her parents, who lost a son before she was born, said they will keep searching for answers in hopes of Chahat having a normal childhood.

“We don’t want her to have difficulties in the future,” Reena told The Sun. “We want a good future for her.”


Sources: MSN
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 3:30 PM
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Tuesday, May 09, 2017

What Happens if You Smoke Marijuana Every Day?

Again, like every year, people will honor the day by smoking lots and lots of weed. Meanwhile, marijuana still toes the line between recreational drug and medicine, while the federal government deems it illegal without any health benefit.

The truth is, doctors and addiction experts have only had a whiff of evidence on marijuana's effects, positive or negative. Medicinally, marijuana can treat chronic pain, nausea and the effects of multiple sclerosis. However, experts are likely to tell you it's too early to define marijuana's effect without more testing. 

In the meantime, people continue to use the drug recreationally and medicinally. Here's what experts say happens when you smoke weed every day:

Dr. Stuart Gitlow, a professor at the University of Florida and a past president of the American Society of Addiction Medicine, said marijuana is much stronger than it was years ago, giving a more psychedelic feel rather than a mild sense of intoxication. 

A small percentage, he said, could have hallucinations and paranoia. However, the vast majority, he said, experience that mild high, which fades after several hours. 

After days of use, the pot becomes stored in the body's fatty tissue and THC is gradually released into the bloodstream, meaning a person can experience the effect of the drug around the clock.

Daily use, he said, promotes a chronic loss of attention, focus and concentration. Daily users perform at a lower level at jobs and at school. Focus and motivation also decrease, he said.

Caron Treatment Center Medical Director Dr. Joseph Garbely said about 15% of cannabis users develop an addiction. Daily users, he said, suffer memory, coordination, and problem-solving issues. For some, it could change the way a brain matures. Smokers who start young, he said, are more susceptible to being a daily user or becoming addicted.

Gitlow and Garbely concede we don't know all we need to know about marijuana. It took decades, Gitlow explained, for researchers to determine the affects of smoking cigarettes. 

Dr. Ryan Vandrey, an associate professor at Johns Hopkins Medicine, says you can't generalize marijuana users. Other factors need to be considered such as their dosage and the reason a person is using the drug. However, he said marijuana can have impact on how people perform at their job or at school. Withdrawal can occur after a period of long-term repeated use.

Dr. Gregory L. Taylor II, a primary care physician and assistant professor of medicine at the University of Southern California, said federal limits on research have inhibited thorough research on marijuana and its effects on the body. He said the research isn't "100% clear" on the drug's negative outcomes, adding there's no overwhelming data it contributes to certain cancers. If possible, he said the drug should be used under the direction of a doctor.


Sources MSN
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 11:30 AM
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Knows Your Health Based on Your Eye Color

What Your Eye Color Says About Your Health

Aside from whether or not you actually need those trendy frames, doctors can learn a lot about your overall health just from looking at your eyes. Conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and even brain tumors leave their mark on your baby blues — sometimes without even affecting your vision.

In fact, your eye color can actually be a hint about your risk for certain health problems. That certainly doesn't mean your eye color is somehow causing those conditions — or that having a certain color means you're definitely doomed to develop a certain problem — but knowing that color is correlated with those issues can help you be more aware of what you're up against, and how best to stay healthy.

Light Eyes Ilustration
Light eyes: If your eyes are blue, green, or gray, you may be at a higher risk for skin cancer than those with darker eyes, Ruth Williams, MD tells Everyday Health (though those with dark eyes also need to be careful about sunscreen use and getting regular mole checks with a derm). You're also more likely to develop age-related macular degeneration, one of the most common causes of vision loss. But you're at a lower risk for cataracts and vitiligo.




Dark Eyes
Dark eyes: If your eyes are brown or hazel, research suggests that you're more likely to have cataracts later in your life than those with lighter eyes. You're also more likely to develop vitiligo, a condition in which some of your melanin cells stop working properly which leaves you with patches of skin without pigment. On the flip side, you're less likely to develop skin cancer and macular degeneration.

Changing Color Eyes 
Changing colors: In some cases, a sudden change in eye color can be a signal of a serious health issue. If your eyes are suddenly red, for instance, that's a sign of irritation, infection, or allergies. And if the whites of your eyes turn yellow, that's a classic indication of jaundice: meaning you need medical attention ASAP.

Of course, you should check in with your doc any time you're concerned about a potential health issue — whether or not your eyes are your clue.

Sources MSN
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 11:16 AM
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Why Hair Turns Gray and Goes Bald


Scientists have pinpointed the cells that cause hair to turn gray and to go bald in mice, according to a new study published in the journal Genes & Development.

Gray hair
Researchers from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center accidentally stumbled upon this explanation for baldness and graying hairs-at least in mouse models-while studying a rare genetic disease that causes tumors to grow on nerves, according to a press release from the center.

They found that a protein called KROX20 switches on skin cells that become a hair shaft, which then causes cells to produce another protein called stem cell factor. In mice, these two proteins turned out to be important for baldness and graying. When researchers deleted the cells that produce KROX20, mice stopped growing hair and eventually went bald; when they deleted the SCF gene, the animals' hair turned white.
Ilustration gray hair

"Although this project was started in an effort to understand how certain kinds of tumors form, we ended up learning why hair turns gray and discovering the identity of the cell that directly gives rise to hair," said lead researcher Dr. Lu Le, associate professor of dermatology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, in a statement.

More research is needed to understand if the process works similarly in humans, and Le and his colleagues plan to start studying it in people. "With this knowledge, we hope in the future to create a topical compound or to safely deliver the necessary gene to hair follicles to correct these cosmetic problems," he said.

Souces MSN
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 10:54 AM
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Keep Your Skins by Wearing Sunscreen in One Picture

While nearly half of American women wear sunscreen regularly, only 18 percent of men follow suit — including your brilliant boyfriend who thinks Coppertone is a Motown cover band. You may have rattled off all the rational reasons why he should slap on some SPF: it prevents skin cancer, wrinkles, age spots, sunburns, and blotchy skin, but he just didn’t listen.

And while you were just thinking about how he is about to look like an old geezer real quick, a gift landed on your timeline. It’s a photo of Stephen Campbell, who is maybe someone’s boyfriend and definitely tragically sunburned.

Sunburn. Intense reddening of the skin on a mans back and upper arm,
resulting from 6 hours exposure to strong sunlight.
The sports commentator played three games of softball last weekend sans sunscreen and has the gnarly sunburn to prove it.

He had to show up to work with a tomato face, which was unfortunate for him because his work requires time in front of the camera. So you showed the viral photo to your boyfriend with a knowing glare. There’s a lesson to be learned here and Campbell said it best: Wear your sunscreen, kids.




Sources MSN
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 10:42 AM
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Most of kids in U.S have Ear Injuries caused by Cotton Swabs

Thousands of kids wind up in U.S. emergency rooms every year for ear injuries caused by cotton swabs, a new study reveals.
Cotton Swabs Warning
The analysis of federal data found that about 263,000 children were treated in emergency departments for ear injuries caused by cotton swabs over the 21-year period from 1990 through 2010.

That works out to about 12,500 such injuries a year, or about 34 injuries a day.

"The two biggest misconceptions I hear as an otolaryngologist are that the ear canals need to be cleaned in the home setting, and that cotton tip applicators should be used to clean them; both of those are incorrect," said senior study author Dr. Kris Jatana. He's with Nationwide Children's Hospital's department of pediatric otolaryngology, in Columbus, Ohio.

"The ears canals are usually self-cleaning. Using cotton tip applicators to clean the ear canal not only pushes wax closer to the ear drum, but there is a significant risk of causing minor to severe injury to the ear," Jatana said in a hospital news release.

Indeed, most of the injuries occurred while using cotton swabs to clean the ears (73 percent), the findings showed. The rest occurred while playing with cotton swabs (10 percent), or with children falling when they had cotton swabs in their ear (9 percent).

The majority of injuries occurred when children were using cotton swabs by themselves (77 percent), followed by when a parent (16 percent) or sibling (6 percent) was using a cotton swab to clean a child's ear.

About two-thirds of patients were younger than 8, and children under 3 accounted for 40 percent of all injuries, according to the report.
Putting cotton swab ilustration

The most common injuries were foreign body sensation (30 percent), perforated ear drum (25 percent) and soft tissue injury (23 percent). Foreign body sensation was the most common injury among children aged 8 to 17, while perforated ear drum was the most common among those younger than 8.

Ninety-nine percent of patients were treated and released. However, damage to the ear drum, hearing bones or inner ear can result in dizziness, balance problems and irreversible hearing loss, the researchers noted.

The study was published online May 8 in the Journal of Pediatrics.

Sources MSN
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 10:19 AM
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Sunday, February 08, 2015

School Visits

English Articles School Visits


Visits by parents and their children to evaluate a school and determine whether it is appropriate for one or more of their children. Evaluative parental visits are usually somewhat unwelcome in public schools, where administrators believe that parents have little choice but to send their children to a particular school. However, parents do have a wide range of SCHOOL CHOICE, and, as in visits to private schools, visits to public schools can simplify that choice by providing such information as whether the school is accredited by the appropriate regional ACCREDITATION ASSOCIATION, how students are doing academically and the colleges to which the school’s graduates have been admitted. Visits also elicit such information as the quality of the school neighborhood, the physical condition of the school and grounds, the classroom teaching methods and atmosphere, the adequacy of the school library facilities, sports and extracurricular activities, special education programs, psychological services and guidance departments, and school security. A school visit may also include an interview with the principal or headmaster to determine the school’s educational philosophy and how that philosophy is translated into concrete results in the form of student achievement.

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Published by Gusti Putra at: 12:08 AM
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Academy

English Articles Academy


I  INTRODUCTION
Academy, originally, in ancient Greece, a public garden outside Athens, dedicated to Athena and other deities and containing a grove and a gymnasium. In these gardens the Greek philosopher Plato met with and instructed his followers, and his informal school came to be known as the Academy. Subsequent schools of philosophy, modeled upon Plato’s, were also called academies; the term was eventually used in ancient times to indicate any institution of higher education or the faculty of such an institution. The most notable academies of the ancient world were the Old Academy, founded (circa 387 BC) by Plato; the Middle Academy, founded by the Greek Platonic philosopher Arcesilaus; and the New Academy, founded by the Greek skeptic philosopher Carneades.

II  LEARNING INSTITUTIONS
Used to denote a school, the word academy has come to be applied to certain kinds of institutions of learning. The Ritterakademien, or schools for knights, appeared increasingly in Germany after the end of the Thirty Years’ War in 1648. The term academy was adopted in England during the late 17th and the 18th centuries by Puritan religious sects as a name for secondary schools that they organized to provide for the general education of their children; these institutions were especially designed to train young men for the Puritan ministry, because such education could not be obtained in contemporary public schools. The word gradually lost its religious denotation, and by the 19th century it applied to a secondary school for boys corresponding roughly to the gymnasium in Germany. In colonial America, the term academy was introduced by Benjamin Franklin; his proposal resulted in the chartering (1753) of the Academy and Charitable School of the Province of Pennsylvania. In 1755 it was renamed the College and Academy and Charitable School of Philadelphia (now the University of Pennsylvania), with power to grant degrees. On the secondary-school level, the earliest academies, Phillips Andover and Phillips Exeter, founded in 1780 and 1781, respectively, introduced a modern curriculum. The academies were private, religion-oriented boarding schools. As they displaced the colonial Latin grammar schools, so were they largely superseded by the public high school after the American Civil War; those that survive, and other similar institutions, have largely become college-preparatory schools.

As a designation for a school, the word academy is also used in a looser sense to indicate institutions in which special accomplishments such as horseback riding, fencing, or dancing are taught. It may also be applied to schools that prepare students for a particular profession, such as the U.S. Military Academy, the U.S. Naval Academy, and the U.S. Air Force Academy.

III  SCHOLARLY AND PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS
To describe a body of learned men (originally the faculty of a school of philosophy), the word academy has come to be applied to various associations of scholars, artists, literary men, and scientists, organized for the promotion of general or special intellectual or artistic interests and not necessarily connected with any distinct school. Thus, Charlemagne applied the name in 782 to a group of scholars organized at his court. During the Renaissance, academies achieved an intellectual prominence rivaling that of the universities and first displayed their typical modern form. They characteristically consisted of a group of elected or appointed investigators, generally under royal or state patronage, who encouraged learning, literature, and art by research and publication. In the 15th century important academies were organized in Italy, notably at the courts of the Italian rulers Lorenzo and Cosimo de’ Medici. In Italy, too, one of the earliest academies devoted to science was organized in Naples in 1560; a later academy founded in the same city in 1603 included Galileo among its members. Scientific academies such as the Royal Society of London, incorporated in London in 1662, have played roles of the highest importance in scientific progress by encouraging investigations and publicizing their results. Stimulated by royal patronage and more efficient methods of communication among scholars, the foundation of academies reached its height in Germany and northeastern Europe during the 18th century. In France, the most celebrated of all collections of academies was organized in 1795 as the Institut de France. The institute now contains five distinct academies, all but one of which were founded as independent institutions in the 17th century; among the most notable of these are the French Academy and the academies of science and of fine art.

In the U.S., academies have not attained the complexity and prestige of their European models because American scholars have traditionally preferred to organize in learned societies open to all qualified applicants and independent of government support. Academies of the European type include the National Academy of Design and the National Academy of Sciences. The American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, a counterpart of the French Academy, is a subsidiary division of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, which, in turn, is modeled on the Institut de France.
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 12:07 AM
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Tutoring

English Articles of Tutoring


Individualized, one-to-one teaching of a student by a tutor engaged and paid for by the student or the student’s family or guardian. Though modern private instruction at the elementary and secondary education levels is largely limited to HOME SCHOOLING, SPECIAL EDUCATION and lessons in instrumental music, it was the most common form of instruction in early modern England and in the American colonies. With education in 16th- and 17th-century England largely reserved for the wealthy nobility, the latter usually engaged skilled masters in each of the basic subjects they expected their children to learn. In addition to classical academics, private instruction usually included dance, music, swordsmanship, horsemanship and other arts and skills. Schools, as such, were largely reserved for boys preparing for the ministry. Although the early settlers in the American colonies were quick to found primary schools, most were in towns of at least 50 to 100 families, thus leaving children in more isolated areas without access to education except by private instructors. Some of the latter were ministers; others were local parents who were literate enough to teach neighbor children to read, write and calculate for a fee. Still others were itinerant instructors.

By about 1690, there were still fewer than 50 schools in the English colonies. Meanwhile, towns were expanding, trade and industry were thriving and the demand for trained workers soared. Although a swarm of self-instruction books provided many of the young with useful knowledge, apprenticeships and private instruction remained the most effective methods of obtaining a practical education. The former entailed a long and often unpleasant period of semi-servitude; the latter was relatively quick and easy and, though costly, permitted the student to maintain a full-time job that provided funds to pay for his instruction.

The demand for such instruction brought hundreds of private teachers to Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Charleston, New Haven, Albany, Norfolk and other towns to teach surveying, navigation, bookkeeping, accounting, commerce and other practical arts, as well as academic subjects and even such gentle arts as dancing, needlework and fencing. Philadelphia alone had at least 136 private instructors between 1740 and 1776. Private instruction proved a boon for both teachers and students. The latter could take lessons in the morning, afternoon or evening to accommodate their work schedules. For some tutors, private instruction was a full-time occupation, and some went on to found schools of their own. For others with full-time jobs, private instruction proved a lucrative way of augmenting their income. Thus, scriveners, accountants, translators, surveyors and even merchants spent their off-hours teaching their trades.

In rural areas, itinerant tutors traveled from town to town, offering all levels of primary and secondary education, often tutoring in Greek, Latin and the classics required for acceptance into college. For communities without grammar schools or a learned minister, such itinerant teachers opened the door to higher education that would ordinarily have been shut to rural youngsters. One provided the necessary classical education for Horace Mann to enroll in BROWN UNIVERSITY in 1819. Some obtained retainers from the wealthy, who continued to educate their children at home, but their broader roll in public education diminished to specific instruction unavailable in school—instrumental music, fine art, the dance and, in some instances, special education. As the number of common schools, grammar schools and academies increased in the 19th century, the need for such private instruction diminished. In the decades following the Civil War, as state-run public school systems emerged along with private preparatory schools for the children of the wealthy, private instruction as a force in American education disappeared. Private instructors either became instructors in schools or founded their own entrepreneurial institutions.

The tutoring industry expanded exponentially, however, after passage of the NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001, which allows parents in failing public schools to transfer their children to other scholars or to charter schools and to use $500 to $1000 of federal moneys paid to their former schools for private tutoring and after-school and summer school classes. More than 80,000 students in New York City alone are now availing themselves of tutoring services, and 14,000 in Chicago. With $2 billion in NCLB funds earmarked for tutoring, commercial tutoring exploded into a $200 milliona- year industry in 2005, and more than 1,800 “supplemental educational services providers” sent an army of tutors into failing public schools across America.
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 12:01 AM
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Saturday, February 07, 2015

Grammar School

Grammar School

Sydney, Grammar School
I  INTRODUCTION
Grammar School, originally a school in which the curriculum emphasized the study of Greek and Latin grammar and related subjects. In a graded system of public schools such as that found in the U.S., the term has come to be synonymous with the term elementary school.

II  LATIN GRAMMAR SCHOOLS
During the early Middle Ages, Latin grammar was the main subject taught in the monastic schools, which were the principal European educational institutions of that time. As universities and colleges developed and education became more secular, the Latin grammar school became a college-preparatory school.
Gradually the study of grammar, viewed as one of the seven liberal arts, came to include all subjects relating to written language, such as style. Greek grammar was added to the curriculum during the intellectual phase of the Renaissance in the 15th and 16th centuries. The study of vernacular languages entered the curriculum during the Reformation, but was given secondary emphasis. These subjects became the major areas of study in European secondary schools, which were generically called grammar, or Latin grammar, schools.
After the Reformation, many ecclesiastical schools were replaced by more secular institutions, especially in Protestant countries. The German Gymnasium and the British public schools were essentially Latin grammar schools. The French lycée also provided a classical education. Such schools were first established in colonial America during the 17th century. In Boston the Latin Grammar School, founded in 1635, became the prototype of other institutions that provided college-preparatory education for boys.

III  U.S. PUBLIC SCHOOLS
When free, state-run educational systems were begun in the U.S. during the 19th century, the grammar-school curriculum was incorporated into the public-school system. Although the term grammar school is still used to indicate the level of instruction next above the rudiments of reading and writing, the true grammar-school subjects have been made a part of the academic branch of secondary education in public schools. Some private academies still retain aspects of the European grammar school.
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 11:58 PM
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Latin Grammar School

English Articles of Latin Grammar School


A private secondary school developed in England that originally took boys of nine or ten years of age for four to seven years of preparation for college. The first school founded in the American colonies was the Boston Latin School, which opened on April 13, 1635. Latin grammar schools, or, more simply, grammar schools, accepted only boys who could read and knew English grammar and basic mathematics and whose parents could afford the tuition. The Latin school curriculum focused on Latin grammar, but also included study of Greek and some history, geography, geometry, algebra and trigonometry.

The Latin school eventually proved too costly and impractical for life in an expanding frontier nation, and it was replaced by the academy, which offered a broader curriculum. Boston Latin, however, remained one of New England’s most renowned schools, eventually helping to educate some of the foremost American colonialists, including BENJAMIN FRANKLIN.Boston Latin is now a public school with a conventional public school curriculum.
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 11:55 PM
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Tuesday, October 04, 2011

Computerization


English Articles Computerization



‘‘Computerization’’ refers to worldwide technology integration and adoption of computers and other electronic IT devices, along with the Internet, to support the activities that people do in the course of their daily lives. A person who uses a computer online exemplifies computerization, as do millions of other people who use any type f IT device. Thus, computerization generally has to do with the integration of IT evices and computerized systems into communications, transportation, manufacturing, ilitary weaponry, entertainment systems, and virtually all other technological reas of modern life. The process of computerization began in the late 1940s with he invention of modern computers to provide munitions guidance systems for the .S. military. However, it was not until 1969 with the invention of the Advanced esearch Project Agency Network (ARPANET) that computerization as we now nderstand it really began to expand. This is because ARPANET pioneered packet witching technology, which began the basis for the Internet in 1983, its commercialization n 1988, and finally the World Wide Web in 1991. Over this period of time, xtending half a century, what began as a small number of mainframe computers volved into personal computers (PCs) that have been widely adopted for academic, overnment, business, nonprofit organization, and individual user purposes.

Today over 1 billion computers exist on the Earth, with approximately 1.5 billion ndividual users of the Internet. The adoption of computers and other IT devices nhances Internet usage, and vice versa. High-speed (broadband) Internet connectivity expansion also drives computer, IT, and Internet technology adoption and utilization by individuals and organizations throughout the world. Utilization of the Internet expanded nearly 275 percent from 2000 to 2008. In North America alone approximately 72 percent of the domestic population (244 million out of 337 million people) now use the Internet regularly. North America represents approximately 18 percent of worldwide Internet users. And there are currently over 100 million Web sites existing on the World Wide Web, with thousands of new Web sites created everyday.

Growth of computer and IT device users and the Internet also stems from how much easier these technologies are to use. Long gone are the days in which a user needed to understand programming in order to use computers. Originally, computers were built with bulky vacuum tubes and comparatively crude electronic components by today’s standards. Consequently, these ‘‘mainframe’’ machines with their computer punch-card readers and their printing components would literally take up very large or several rooms within a building. Each mainframe computer cost millions of dollars.

Today digital computers, IT devices, and plug-in media/components are increasingly smaller, portable, and much more affordable. They have faster processing speeds, greater memory, and increasingly more built-in functions. For example, Apple’s iPhone and iPod touch devices are media players that also have Internet browsing and communication abilities. Several manufacturers are integrating personal digital assistant (PDA) and cellular phone capabilities, and it is difficult to purchase a cell phone without a built-in digital camera.
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 3:17 AM
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Sunday, October 02, 2011

Advertising on the Internet

English Articles Advertising on the Internet




Like broadcast or print, the Internet is an advertising medium. Companies and organizations working to promote their products and services must consider this medium as they would television, magazines, outdoor, and so on. Advertising on the Internet employs a variety of forms.

Banners

The most common form of advertising on the Web is banner ads. Banner ads may be used for creating awareness or recognition or for direct-marketing objectives. Banner ads may take on a variety of forms as well as a number of names such as side panels, skyscrapers, or verticals. Initially banner ads constituted the vast majority of advertising on the Net, but studies indicating their questionable effectiveness have led to a decline in usage. Reports on click-through rates vary, but most studies indicate a less than 1 percent response rate. Afew studies have shown an increase in response rates in recent years. These findings may lead to increased use of this method of advertising in the future.

Sponsorships

Another common form of advertising is sponsorships. There are two types of sponsorships. Regular sponsorships occur when a company pays to sponsor a section of a site, for example, Clairol’s sponsorship of a page on GirlsOn.com and Intuit’s Turbo Tax sponsorship of a page on Netscape’s financial section. A more involved agreement is the content sponsorship, in which the sponsor not only provides dollars in return for name association but participates in providing the content itself. In some cases, the site is responsible for providing content and having it approved by the sponsor; in other instances, the sponsor may contribute all or part of the content. Due in part to the lack of effectiveness of banner ads, sponsorships have been increasing in popularity. Notice the number of partners on the iVillage site in each of which provides content.

Pop-Ups/Pop-Unders

When you access the Internet, have you ever seen a small window appear on Netscape advertising AOL’s “Instant Messenger”? Such Windows are known as pop-ups, and they often appear when you access a certain site. Pop-ups are usually larger than a banner ad but smaller than a full screen.

Pop-unders are ads that appear underneath the web page and become visible only when the user leaves the site. For example, if you ever visited a travel website, you probably were hit with a pop-under ad for Orbitz—one of the heaviest users of this form of web advertising. Go to the Los Angeles Times website, and when you leave, you will almost certainly see an example of this form of advertising.

While some companies like Orbitz believe that pop-ups and pop-unders are effective forms of advertising, others disagree. Consumer complaints have led Google.com, iVillage.com, and Earthlink (among others) to no longer accept these advertising forms. (According to iVillage, its research indicates that as many as 90 percent of its users dislike such ads.) Nevertheless, indications are that despite the annoying qualities of popups and pop-unders, more and more websites are offering this type of advertising. Interstitials Interstitials are ads that appear on your screen while you are waiting for a site’s content to download. Although some advertisers believe that interstitials are irritating and more of a nuisance than a benefit, a study conducted by Grey Advertising found that only 15 percent of those surveyed felt that the ads were irritating (versus 9 percent for banner ads) and that 47 percent liked the ads (versus 38 percent for banners). Perhaps more importantly, while ad recall of banner ads was approximately 51 percent, recall of interstitials was much higher, at 76 percent. Recently, Acura introduced its Integra Type R model using an interstitial. Coca-Cola, TriStar, and Macy’s commonly employ this ad form.

Push Technologies

Push technologies, or webcasting technologies, allow companies to “push” a message to consumers rather than waiting for them to find it. Push technologies dispatch web pages and news updates and may have sound and video geared to specific audiences and even individuals. For example, a manager whose job responsibilities involve corporate finance might log on to his or her computer and find new stories are automatically there on the economy, stock updates, or a summary of a speech by Alan Greenspan. Companies provide screen savers that automatically “hook” the viewer to their sites for sports, news, weather reports, and/or other information that the viewer has specified. Users can use personalization—that is, they can personalize their sites to request the kinds of specific information they are most interested in viewing. For example, if you are into college sports, you can have updates sent to you through sites providing college sports information. The service is paid for by advertisers who flash their messages on the screen.

Links

While considered by some as not a type of advertising, links serve many of the same purposes as are served by the types discussed above. For example, a visitor to one site may click on a link that provides additional information and/or related materials at another site. At the bottom of the homepage at women.com are a number of links to magazines, including Cosmopolitan and Good Housekeeping among others. Clicking on one of these takes you to the magazine’s site and usually a pop-up for a subscription to the magazine appears. Other forms of advertising, such as ads placed in chat rooms, are also available. Given the limited use of many of these alternatives, we suggest the reader consult additional resources for more information.
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 3:26 AM
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Computer Ethics

English Articles of Computer Ethics


The ethical use of computers and other types of electronic information technology (IT) devices is known as ‘‘computer ethics’’ or ‘‘cyber ethics.’’ These concepts informally emerged beginning in the 1950s with the invention of mainframe computers initially used by U.S. government agencies, followed by colleges and universities. However, the term ‘‘computer ethics’’ was not articulated until Walter Maner did so in the mid-1970s. The ideas behind computer ethics involve complex considerations about how to behave properly—i.e., according to the laws, social customs, and moral standards of society—when using IT devices and information systems including the Internet. All forms of technology, including IT, used by people that allow people to access and use public and privately owned networks along with information should involve responsible use of computers, cell phones, PDAs, and other devices. For example, if a person uses a computer to access and share information over the Internet, he should do so in ways that comply with applicable civil and criminal laws and/or in ways that do not violate the rights of or harm other people. This, the essence of cyber ethics, can be difficult to achieve in certain instances. Today the ability to access information quickly online has created an ‘‘on-demand society’’ consisting of many people who frequently do not consider the possible harm they may be causing to other people.


The first users of computers faced many unprecedented challenges having to do with network access along with the use and exchange of data. As computer use and complexity increased, opportunities arose that allowed even more and comparatively unrestricted access to information via the Internet. Over time users were empowered with newer technologies and also were conditioned to access and respond to information in a variety of ways, according to their own interests, often with little adult or managerial oversight. Consider the modern practice of ‘‘flaming’’ that occurs when people disrespectfully interact with each other online. Frequently this happens when a person comments or posts something in a defamatory, insulting, or hostile manner about another person or organization only to have it negatively reacted to. Such online ‘‘shouting’’ can disrupt chat forums, blogs, and other online community exchanges, causing emotional harm or worse to people or organizations involved or named.

Computer/cyber ethics is a critical issue in modern societies in which millions of people now use many types of IT devices in their everyday lives. Cybercrime statistics along with an increasing number of research studies indicate that young people as well as adults do not behave ethically online, and that, beginning with a person’s earliest exposure to computers, he can easily become a victim and victimizer of other people.

Academic misconduct, piracy, cyber bullying, and other forms of online abuse and cybercrime cause harm in various ways, but what is considered responsible use of IT devices and information systems varies among people and situations. Not everyone, for example, believes that pirating music is wrong, even though it is illegal: while many young people would never think of stealing a music CD from a store in a shopping mall, they will use peer-to-peer networks to illegally download songs without paying to do so. What do you think about this issue? Can you think of other cybercrime issues or online behaviors that are controversial? Today society debates cyber ethics in areas pertaining to copyright and other intellectual property rights issues, the creation and enforcement of laws, formulation of public policies, professional codes of conduct, information security practices, software license agreements, and hardware reseller’s mandates, among other issues. Technology use struggles against regulation, with consumers, businesses, and governments all seeking to predominate over what constitutes the ethical use of computers. With no uniform standards on computer use, a few employment sectors and professional membership associations are creating their own codes of conduct. At the organizational level these frequently take the form of ‘‘acceptable computer/network use policies’’ and may be complemented with cyber ethics training. Unfortunately, the results amount to a ‘‘wild west approach’’ to cyber ethics, with conflicting interests among different populations and groups of computer users. In cyber ethics, there is no such thing as ‘‘model traffic laws’’ as exist throughout the United States when it comes to operating motor vehicles. All too often ITusers make up their own ‘‘rules’’ when using the Internet, which is the social equivalent of everyone driving any way they desire with little or no regard for other motorists.

The results of this lack of uniformity is that overall guidance on good behavior and best practices tends to be absent from users’ initial computer experiences and in their continued decision-making processes. Thus children, when first taught how to use computers or portable gaming devices, are seldom provided with age-appropriate instruction in cyber ethics. The same is true for millions of youth and young adults who may go through their entire educational preparation in middle school, high school, and college without receiving any cyber ethics training. Since most users of computer technology lack any formalized ethical instruction, it is no surprise that the social and economic impacts and levels of harm caused by cybercrimes are increasing.

As users age, their exposure, experience, and technical capabilities to engage in cybercrime activities increase. Lacking cyber ethics education along with instruction in information security and Internet safety contributes to online  victimization and offenses. In recognizing this, many institutions and organizations are providing guidance, information, and model practices and policies related to sound use of IT devices. I-SAFE, Inc. and the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) are two nonprofit organizations that develop online instructional resources for teachers, parents, and youth that relate to using computers responsibly. Adults need to review the current information on technology and educate themselves on impact in areas of concern. For example, businesspeople and business owners need to understand their firm’s policies on the use of technology, or, if a person owns a business, he needs to ensure that he has a policy aligned with his corporate goals. Educators and government officials need to create ways to enable parents and members of the community to learn basic computer etiquette, and then provide uniform instruction options for students and others. To stay current on the issue, a person need only search the Internet on the term ‘‘ethical computer use,’’ ‘‘computer ethics,’’ and ‘‘cyber ethics,’’ or, where available, take a course having to do with the philosophy of ethics that emphasizes controversial online behaviors.
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 3:22 AM
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Child Labor

English Articles Child Labor

According to the INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION (ILO), some 250 million children between the ages of Bonded labor is otherwise known as debt bondage or peonage. It is outlawed by the 1956 UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of SLAVERY, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery. Bonded labor involves a business transaction whereby an advance payment is made to a (usually destitute) family, who in exchange hands over their child to an employer. The amount paid may be as little as $15 depending on the type of work and the age and skill of the child. In theory the child can work off his debt, but in practice this almost never occurs; the child is unable to work off the debt, and the family is seldom able to buy the child back. Unscrupulous employers debit a variety of “expenses” or deduct “interest” from their paychecks, effectively keeping them in debt indefinitely. In some cases, bonded labor agreements are multigenerational, meaning that each generation in a family is obliged by the contract to turn over a child to an employer, often for no payment at all. As the child gets older, he or she may be freed but only on condition that another younger child from the family is offered as a replacement.

Millions of children work as bonded child laborers in countries around the world—15 million in India alone, where the practice has a long tradition. (If all forms of child labor in the country are taken into account, as many as 60–115 million children may be employed, the largest number of working children in the world.) These children, some as young as four or five, are put to work in fields, stone quarries, and mills or sent out into the streets to pick rags. Some work as indentured domestic servants. Their fates are grim: old age by 40, death by 50.

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Published by Gusti Putra at: 3:20 AM
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Silent Reading

English Articles Silent Reading



Reading to oneself, without producing any sound or moving the tongue or lips. A relatively new technique of reading, in historic terms, silent reading contrasts with and has different purposes from oral reading, which is concerned with pronunciation, enunciation, voice control and communication. Until the early 20th century, students universally learned to read orally, because reading was the core of family recreation in the home before radio and television. As a result of eye-movement research just before World War I, silent reading was found to increase reading rates, reading comprehension and the ability to infer word meanings from their context. For several decades thereafter, silent reading replaced oral reading as the sole goal of reading instruction. More recently, however, most schools have taught both oral and silent reading, each of which provides students with different sets of essential skills.
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Published by Gusti Putra at: 3:16 AM
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